Saturday, June 18, 2022

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SHOWS THAT THE ANCIENT MAYANS WERE SO-CALLED BLACK PEOPLE

Landmark research underrepresented in the study of Maya civilization. This volume, which includes an indexed bibliography of the first 150 years of Maya osteology, pulls together for the first time a broad spectrum of bioarchaeologists that reveal remarkable data on Maya genetic relationship, demographic, and diseases. This is a book, and a full-text electronic version is not available. Please contact your library or request a copy through Inter Library Loan.

 ª 2011 International Endodontic Journal northern part of the nation of Belize; and Guatemala's northern. The nation's history began about 2500 B.C., but their culture flourished from 300 A.D. to 900 A.D (Whittington & Reed 2006, Williams & White 2006. Based on archaeological findings, at least 60% of the total population was engaged in some form of tooth modification (Tiesler 1999). ...
... In Maya's dental practice, teeth were filed into points, ground into rectangles or cavities were prepared to permit the insertion of round pieces of stone in over a hundred different patterns. This relatively complex procedure was carried out using a hard tube that was spun between the hands or in a rope drill, with slurry of powdered quartz in water as an abrasive, to cut a cavity through the tooth enamel to allow placement of an inlay (Whittington & Reed 2006, Williams & White 2006, Vukovic et al. 2009, Gonzalez et al. 2010. These inlays were made of various minerals and were ground to fit the cavity so precisely, and the adhesive was so effective that many burials found by archaeologists today still have them firmly in place (Williams & White 2006, Gonzalez et al. 2010. ...
... These studies were performed using X-ray and scanning electron microscopic analysis and have shown that, most of the time, the base of the cavity prepared to hold the inlay remained at a distance from the pulp cavity. However, perforation of the pulp chamber has also been reported, which ultimately led to periapical disease and abscess formation (Fastlicht 1948, Tiesler 2002, Whittington & Reed 2006, Gonzalez et al. 2010. ...
 In addition, eyewitness accounts of SSA populations in the Caribbean, and Mexico anthropologists have found SSA skeletons at Pre-Columbian sites (5,(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). Some of the ancient Mayan skeletal remains indicate that they suffered from sickle cell anemia an illness associated with Sub-Saharan Africans (18)(19)(20). The presence of sickle cell anemia among the ancient Maya, supports Quatrefages claim that the Chontal Maya were Africans( 7,11) . ...
... Archaeologists have found numerous SSA or Black Native American skeletons in Mexico (13)(14)(15)(16) , some of them showing evidence of sickle cell anemia (18)(19)(20). This suggest that Africans were in Mexico before the advent of Christophe Columbus and other Europeans (1)(2)(3)(4)7). ...
... We also find that the YAP+ associated with AàG transition at DYS271 and 9bp also has a high frequency among the Maya, all of these markers are associated with African ancestry. This is not surprising because Quatrefages classified the Chontal Maya as Black Native Americans (3,7,11) , and sickle cell anemia is found among ancient Mayan skeletons (18)(19)(20). ...

. In addition, to reports of the First Spanish Chronicles eyewitness accounts of SSA populations in the Caribbean, and Mexico anthropologists have found SSA skeletons at Pre-Columbian sites (Irwin; Marquez, 1956; Wiercinski, 1969 Wiercinski, , 1972 Wiercinski, , 1972b Wiercinski, , 1975). Some of the ancient Maya skeletal remains indicate that they suffered from sickle cell anemia an illness associated with Sub-Saharan Africans (Moore, 1929; Wailoo, 2002; Whittington, 1997). ...
... Wolof (27.55) and the Fula (27.8%) (Wailoo, 2002). et al., (1992) Jola 22.8% Allsopp et al., (1992) Wolof 27.5% Allsopp et al., (1992) Fula 27.8% Allsopp et al., (1992) Discussion It is interesting to note that while MA HLA show no relationship with East Asian, Polynesians and Australians (Wailoo, 2002; Whittington, 1997), they do show a relationship to Omani and African HLA alleles ( Albalushi et al., 2014). The high frequency of HLA B*35 among MA and SSA suggest some sort of relationship. ...
... This not surprising because Quatrefages (1889) classified the Chontal Maya as SSA (Winters, 1977Winters, , 2011b) and sickle cell anemia is found among ancient Mayan skeletons (Moore, 1929; Wailoo, 2002). The fact that archaeologists have found numerous SSA skeletons in Mexico (Irwin; Marquez, 1956; Wiercinski, 1969 Wiercinski, , 1972 Wiercinski, , 1972b Wiercinski, , 1975), some of them showing evidence of sickle cell anemia suggest that Africans were in Mexico before the advent of Christophe Columbus and other Europeans (Wailoo, 2002; Whittington, 1997) indicate a large number of Blacks lived in Mexico before Columbus arrived in the Western hemisphere. This along with the Lancadon and Otomi being classified ...Both of these phenomena were associated with depopulation, for which disease (nutritional, parasitic, and infectious) has been hypothesized as a causative factor (Hooton 1940, Willey & Shimkin 1973, Fariss 1984, Chase & Rice 1985, Santley et al. 1986). Much of the bioarchaeological research involving testing the ecological model of Maya collapse (Whittington & Reed 1997, White 1999) arises from Hooten's (1940) observations of anemia among the sacrificial victims at Chichen Itza, and his challenge to archaeologists to consider malnutrition as a cause for the Classic period Maya collapse. According to the ecological model, rising population density necessitated intensification in the tion and consumption of maize, which in turn caused widespread environmental degradation. ..

 Usual terminology is limited to burials, caches, and problematic deposits, although curated human bone is often also found fashioned into artefacts and jewellery or as part of deposits that include ceramics, precious stone, or other organic material. This limited terminology refl ects a scholarly neglect of the wide variety of means by which human bone entered the archaeological record in ancient Mesoamerica (Tiesler and Cucina 2007;Welsh 1988;Whittington and Reed 1997). Too often an emphasis on burials as the normative and familiar cultural format for the treatment of human bone material has relegated all other examples of bone material to the unknown and thus largely unknowable categories described as fragmentary or problematic.... Like other precontact Mesoamerican areas, the Lowland Maya population was characterized by its strong dependence on maize and other tropical crops, which made up a large portion of the diet (Wright and White, 1996;Saul and Saul, 1997;White, 1997White, , 1999Wright, 1997;Whittington, 1999). Nonetheless, studies on caries and stable isotopes indicate a high level of heterogeneity in plant consumption both between and within sites (Sanders and Price, 1968;Gerry and Krueger, 1997;White, 1999;Whittington, 1999), when investigated in terms of sex and social stratification. The available evidence provides divergent results on diet and health between the elite and commoners. ...

. The last decade has also seen a rise in research that identifies the importance of migration in shaping the growth of urban areas (e.g. Whittington andRead 1997, Price et al. 2008, among others). It is becoming clearer that the nature of contact between polities was highly variable and complex, and may have been the result of numerous factors such as warfare, trade, or political alliances (Demarest 2004). While both a rich archaeological record and hieroglyphic dataset led to a better understanding of the Classic Maya population history compared to most other ancient Native American cultures [2], biological investigations of ancient Guatemala population history are mainly limited to osteology [11] and dental studies [12,13]. These studies arrived however to contradictory finding

Over the past few decades, bioarchaeological studies have greatly contributed to our understanding of the lifeways of the ancient Maya peoples of southern Mexico and Central America (e.g., Whittington and Reed 2006;Scherer 2017). In addition to the traditional bioarchaeological goals of reconstructing health status and paleopathologies (Wright and White 1996;Cucina and Tiesler 2003), studies now routinely employ stable isotope analysis of human bone and enamel to provide information on past dietary practices and residential mobility (e.g., White and Schwarcz 1989;Wright 2005).This trend has definitely changed in recent years. New powerful analytical tools and new comprehensive frames of reference have made bioarchaeological approaches increasingly applicable in Maya investigation (Whittington & Reed, 1997;White, 1999;Tiesler Blos, 2001b). In this light, the present joint investigation, through the study of context, biographical data, and diaphysial form in the adult population of Classic period Xcambó (Yucatan, Mexico), attempts to provide new answers to questions concerning lifestyle, domestic labour division and subsistence strategies at this ancient coastal Maya settlement ( Figure 1




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