Landmark research underrepresented in the study of Maya civilization. This volume, which includes an indexed bibliography of the first 150 years of Maya osteology, pulls together for the first time a broad spectrum of bioarchaeologists that reveal remarkable data on Maya genetic relationship, demographic, and diseases. This is a book, and a full-text electronic version is not available. Please contact your library or request a copy through Inter Library Loan.
Saturday, June 18, 2022
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SHOWS THAT THE ANCIENT MAYANS WERE SO-CALLED BLACK PEOPLE
... These studies were performed using X-ray and scanning electron microscopic analysis and have shown that, most of the time, the base of the cavity prepared to hold the inlay remained at a distance from the pulp cavity. However, perforation of the pulp chamber has also been reported, which ultimately led to periapical disease and abscess formation (Fastlicht 1948, Tiesler 2002, Whittington & Reed 2006, Gonzalez et al. 2010. ...
... We also find that the YAP+ associated with AàG transition at DYS271 and 9bp also has a high frequency among the Maya, all of these markers are associated with African ancestry. This is not surprising because Quatrefages classified the Chontal Maya as Black Native Americans (3,7,11) , and sickle cell anemia is found among ancient Mayan skeletons (18)(19)(20). ...
... This not surprising because Quatrefages (1889) classified the Chontal Maya as SSA (Winters, 1977Winters, , 2011b) and sickle cell anemia is found among ancient Mayan skeletons (Moore, 1929; Wailoo, 2002). The fact that archaeologists have found numerous SSA skeletons in Mexico (Irwin; Marquez, 1956; Wiercinski, 1969 Wiercinski, , 1972 Wiercinski, , 1972b Wiercinski, , 1975), some of them showing evidence of sickle cell anemia suggest that Africans were in Mexico before the advent of Christophe Columbus and other Europeans (Wailoo, 2002; Whittington, 1997) indicate a large number of Blacks lived in Mexico before Columbus arrived in the Western hemisphere. This along with the Lancadon and Otomi being classified ...Both of these phenomena were associated with depopulation, for which disease (nutritional, parasitic, and infectious) has been hypothesized as a causative factor (Hooton 1940, Willey & Shimkin 1973, Fariss 1984, Chase & Rice 1985, Santley et al. 1986). Much of the bioarchaeological research involving testing the ecological model of Maya collapse (Whittington & Reed 1997, White 1999) arises from Hooten's (1940) observations of anemia among the sacrificial victims at Chichen Itza, and his challenge to archaeologists to consider malnutrition as a cause for the Classic period Maya collapse. According to the ecological model, rising population density necessitated intensification in the tion and consumption of maize, which in turn caused widespread environmental degradation. ..
Usual terminology is limited to burials, caches, and problematic deposits, although curated human bone is often also found fashioned into artefacts and jewellery or as part of deposits that include ceramics, precious stone, or other organic material. This limited terminology refl ects a scholarly neglect of the wide variety of means by which human bone entered the archaeological record in ancient Mesoamerica (Tiesler and Cucina 2007;Welsh 1988;Whittington and Reed 1997). Too often an emphasis on burials as the normative and familiar cultural format for the treatment of human bone material has relegated all other examples of bone material to the unknown and thus largely unknowable categories described as fragmentary or problematic.... Like other precontact Mesoamerican areas, the Lowland Maya population was characterized by its strong dependence on maize and other tropical crops, which made up a large portion of the diet (Wright and White, 1996;Saul and Saul, 1997;White, 1997White, , 1999Wright, 1997;Whittington, 1999). Nonetheless, studies on caries and stable isotopes indicate a high level of heterogeneity in plant consumption both between and within sites (Sanders and Price, 1968;Gerry and Krueger, 1997;White, 1999;Whittington, 1999), when investigated in terms of sex and social stratification. The available evidence provides divergent results on diet and health between the elite and commoners. ...
. The last decade has also seen a rise in research that identifies the importance of migration in shaping the growth of urban areas (e.g. Whittington andRead 1997, Price et al. 2008, among others). It is becoming clearer that the nature of contact between polities was highly variable and complex, and may have been the result of numerous factors such as warfare, trade, or political alliances (Demarest 2004). While both a rich archaeological record and hieroglyphic dataset led to a better understanding of the Classic Maya population history compared to most other ancient Native American cultures , biological investigations of ancient Guatemala population history are mainly limited to osteology  and dental studies [12,13]. These studies arrived however to contradictory finding
Over the past few decades, bioarchaeological studies have greatly contributed to our understanding of the lifeways of the ancient Maya peoples of southern Mexico and Central America (e.g., Whittington and Reed 2006;Scherer 2017). In addition to the traditional bioarchaeological goals of reconstructing health status and paleopathologies (Wright and White 1996;Cucina and Tiesler 2003), studies now routinely employ stable isotope analysis of human bone and enamel to provide information on past dietary practices and residential mobility (e.g., White and Schwarcz 1989;Wright 2005).This trend has definitely changed in recent years. New powerful analytical tools and new comprehensive frames of reference have made bioarchaeological approaches increasingly applicable in Maya investigation (Whittington & Reed, 1997;White, 1999;Tiesler Blos, 2001b). In this light, the present joint investigation, through the study of context, biographical data, and diaphysial form in the adult population of Classic period Xcambó (Yucatan, Mexico), attempts to provide new answers to questions concerning lifestyle, domestic labour division and subsistence strategies at this ancient coastal Maya settlement ( Figure 1